The Internet is a Cosmic Entity set in the Universe.

What is the internet?

The Internet has become increasingly popular with people every / sharing and easy access to it " Technology. With the help of this technology, people in many areas are easy to learn,cheap, fast and securely. In this way,to the sea of knowledge, or to a large library. *By the end of 1997, more than 100,000,000 people,information exchange and can write a large And communities. This is the social side of the internet.

  • It is a giant library where many useful information is as close as a button press.
  • By the end of 1997, more than 20,000,000 computers were connected to a very large computer and communications network.
  • It is a platform of democracy that hosts environments where people can freely express ideas on different topics.
  • Home shopping, banking services, radio-television broadcasts, daily newspaper services, etc. With the applications like Internet is actually a life facilitator at the same time.

At the intersection of all these definitions is the "Information Transmission and Sharing,the use of knowledge acquired after ". As a result, the Internet is theSystem. With the emergence of the commercial dimension,It has begun to pass. The Internet is a different medium, a different space. Own, writtennon-rules; a completely different space that is its own society. Classical lifeforms, changing the value judgments; new concepts in our life, newSomething that brings work. It affects our life. It's just too much. It is much easier to see the effects of the Internet and feel it.Let us consider what we do in our life under normal conditions,how you changed them; how they have introduced new meaningsI gözlemleyel. Maybe some of us have less (or no), some of usthey will be affected very (or very much). But the truth is,In years (when entering 2000) the Internet will be with us in every wayin our lives we will do a lot of things related to itshopping, airline / train reservations, access to daily newspapers, scientificreading magazines.)

Who is in the internet?

On the Internet all over the world; universities, research institutes, publicinstitutions, many commercial establishments, and so on.The number of computers connected to the Internet is estimated at around 25,000,000.(The situation at the end of 1997) This number is growing rapidly every day. Average InternetIt is estimated that the number of users is over 100,000,000(The situation in late 1997). A computer connected to the Internet communication networkit can be a single user, it can have multiple (sometimes hundreds, thousands,millions of users). Personal computers and home connectionsare examples of single-user Internet connections. On the other hand,systems that are accessible by multiple users at the same timeExamples of Internet connections.

What does internet gives us?

Once you have defined the Internet as a "communication network"what you have to offer on this infrastructure of the Internetguessing is actually not that difficult. In this "communication network"The most basic process between any two computers is bi-directional information transfer.The intention here is to find a file in one of the computers,computer program or a message. The Internet, technically, offers many services supported by the TCP / IP protocol.For example, if a user with Internet access is authorizedinformation on any other computer connected to the Internet.they can access them, take them to their own computer,It may send files / information to another computer with Internet access. Itfeature is known as the file transfer protocol. Similarly, the InternetThe users on each other can send e-mail to each other. This, too,mail transmission protocol (e-mail). The Internet, through different protocols, allows people to access "information"facilities. So, with the help of the Internet, you can access "all sorts of" information. In terms of content, the Internet has sometimes forced people to imaginedimensions. You can easily get a brief introduction of the films on sightto our home screen or scan at the American Library of CongressWe can do it. It is possible to link to the archive of TÜBİTAK and publish new and old articles of Bilim ve TeknikWe can scan the numbers, read the texts. Or, you reach the Hacettepe Univ.we can see the temperatures of the current Beytepe Campus graphically. Another for example, we want to join a scientific meeting. It is possible to increase the samples; To NASA serviceswe can connect and scan the latest satellite photos; or connect to poetry archiveswe can read poems. Developed in recent years, the World Wide Web (WWW, Web)based Internet tools make information transfer even easier the information that can be reached and the services provided in the quantity and type They have increased. They offer the Internet; the desires of those who use it, their imagination and growing Internet technology.==Who can put the information, the programs that I can get through the Internet? I take these, but do I have to pay?== In some centers accessible via the Internet, there are open archives.There is a wide variety of information, a wide variety of programs. This information conference registration form, as well as a product introduction guide on the market. Informational files are mostly in plain text format, and graphics / audio / animation etc. can be enriched with the content. These are more,the introduction of a product, the user to solve the some support information to show, etc. In addition, in web-based environments,we also find ads and product promotions. The most common files in such archives are very different purposes and thousands of different varieties of computer environments (PC, Mac, Unix, etc.)are computer programs that contain hundreds of gigabytes (software, software).

How is access to the Internet?

Many Internet users, the Internet, the institution they work with or their presenceuniversities. The connections from the home are alsoan educational institution, business organization with a connection, or service providers.

What is the Internet address? What is the domain name and IP number?

Every computer connected to the Internet has its own unique address. Domain Name With a hierarchical naming system called System (DNS)(Internet address), internet connected computers and computer system's names are given. DNS is also a TCP / IP service protocol. DNS as 'host' all units linked to the named internet are locally in a tree structuregrouping. In this way, all addresses are defined anywhere you do not need to be. For example, under, there can be many addresses, such as etc. Each Internet address corresponds to a 4-digit number. in the form of A.B.c.Dthese numbers are called IP (Internet Protocol) numbers. where a, b, c, and d are 0-255lt; / RTI & gt; (32 bit addressing system). For example this number is The first part of each Internet address is the network address of the domain where the last partis divided into two to give the number of the machine (host). A computerthe part reserved for the machine number according to the amount of machines in its networkit may be larger or smaller. Respond to different needsIP addresses are grouped as follows.

Network Adress Groups

Class A

Class A network addresses Range from to Each network can have roughly 1.6 million machines.

Class B

Class B network addresses from address to address 16065 network addresses and roughly 65500 machines in each networkIt can be found.

Class C

Class C network addresses from to; / RTI & gt; It has about 2 million network addresses, each of which consists of 254 machines.

Class D

Class D addresses between 224 and 254 do not define any network,reserved for further use.

Network Information Center

The distribution of these domain addresses is done by the NIC (Network Information Center), then each domain has its own address according to the needsby disassembling. (Recently, a limited number of Internet addresseswith the idea that space can exist, towards a new addressing strategyIt is being made. In the coming years, new types of IP addresses (128we can wait for it to come out.) A machine name corresponding to these IP numbers (domain addresses)located. On this note, the names of the machines are easier to remember. In his dominance hea service providing the pass between the IP numbers of the domain and these names(Domain Name Service). This service also belongs to other domainslearn their names by asking their DNS. If we go back to our example. Istanbul Technical University is a Class Bnetwork number. ( All IP in the domainThe numbers are 160.75. . The IT Center can use this numberdistributed. Electronic-Communication Department domainin ( numberIt is given. This is also defined as This networkAll of the machines included are 160.75.27. start with the numberthe IP number of the titanium nameplate machine in this network is> Note that a host number can take up to 254 different values ​​from 1 to 254.Because 0 and 255 contain special meanings in this numbering. 0, network'uwhile 255 identifies all hosts on that network. The address and the Network are used for testing and development.The address defines each machine itself, everything sent here,your machine will come back as if from another network. Itsome experiments on the network without any network connection to the networksoftware can be developed. DNS also translates the Internet address into numeric adrese. Domains hierarchical DNSrepresent different structures within the addressing system. Each domain has its ownIt is an independent community within. Naturally, everyone has a nice head to headInternet domain can not receive name and IP number. To the Network Information Center (NIC)it is necessary to apply for it.

How do we get the information we want on the Internet?

Every network connected to the Internet can be connected to one or moreservice provider or institution. At these junctions, multiplerouters with connection. At these node points,information about which networks are available in your arms (either between routersfrom communication protocols or constant definitions). These definitionsin addition there is a default route definition, which is not defined in the nodeaddresses are directed there. All communications are between 100 and 1000 bytes on averagepackages. At the beginning of each package is sent from (IPaddress) and where it is sent. Packet content used in communication .In this case, for example, a mailby passing the node from the node in small packages with addresses.In this framework, "information seeker" (client) and "information sender" (server)we can talk about two main points. The client (requesting the information) may request thisthe server informs the computer that the requested information is within the rules. Itother computers where information is passed / forwarded between two computershas.

What do the abbreviations in Internet addresses mean?

Affiliates to the Internet can be divided into different groups,address, the organization in which the group included the abbreviation, except for some exceptionsabsolutely. In addition, countries' 2-letter identification codesMost of the addresses that come from the States and Canada and offer a wide audience servicesome units) are appended to the end of the address. Internet address, if for special purposesIf it belongs to a service (such as ftp, gopher, www), it usually means that at the beginning of the addressis given with an abbreviation used.

Adress Abrevations


Government agencies


Educational institutions (such as universities)


Non-commercial, non-profit organizations


Business organizations


Military organizations


Service Providers (such as Internet Service Providers)


Academic institutions (in some countries it is used in place of EDU)


International organizations


FTP Archive Site (prefix)


World Wide Web Site (sometimes used on the web)

Some Country Abrevations

tr: Turkey, jp: Japan, UK: UK, it: Italy, ch: Switzerland,ca: Canada, ru: Russia, id: Indonesia, nl: Netherlands, de: Germany, fr: France,province: Israel, no: Norway, se: Sweden, fi: Finland, gr: Greece, hr: Croatia, yu: NewYugoslavia, br: Brazil, bg: Bulgaria

New Address Abrevations


Arts and culture related sites


Commercial Firms


Information service sites


Addresses that used for personal domains


Entertainment sites


Shopping centers, places where merchandise are sold


Sites offering services related to www

What it contains or contained by?

Internet contains Normal Web and Deep Web. It contained by The Total and The Interverse.

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