Jupiter is the largest planet in the Solar System, first gas planet and is also separated from the rocky planets via the asteroid belt. It is the largest planet and also 318 more massive than Earth is, as well as 11 times wider than Earth. Jupiter is more than 2,5 times more massive than all the other planets combined. Jupiter is 89.000 miles wide, so big you fit over 1.300 Earth's inside of it.
It is the fifth planet away from the Sun, with a considerable gap between it and Mars. This kind of space between planets also appears between Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, as well as other dwarf planets, like Pluto or Eris. The asteroid belt is thought to exist because of Jupiters massive gravity, which is 2,4 stronger than Earth's, preventing asteroids from forming into another planet, which explains why the asteroid belt exists between Jupiter and Mars.
Jupiter's atmosphere is by far the largest planetary atmosphere of all te planets in the Solar System. Jupiter's upper atmosphere is composed of 3 layers that are 71 km high together, with the top having clouds of ammonia ice, middle having ammonium hydrosulfide and innermost layer having water vapor, ice and water vapor. All the rest is made out of primarily hydrogen and helium.Jupiter's atmosphere is also very windy with strong storms, because Jupiter is rotating very fast.
Jupiter's thick bands are comprised of gases that contain sulfur and phosphorus. This, and the extremely fast rotation of Jupiter speeds up and separates these belts into dark and bright zones. In the southern hemisphere, the big red spot can be located, which as been observed for over 300 - 400 years, it is around 2 - 3 times larger than Earth itself.Scientist think that 400 years ago is when the Great Red Spot of Jupiter was formed. There is also lightning in the Great Red Spot and also on other strong storms of Jupiter.
The problem with finding an adequate model of Jupiter's internal structure is due to the extreme condition that are exerted upon hydrogen and helium inside of Jupiter. Scientists haven't done extensive research on what happens when temperatures of 24,700 °C and pressures of up to 100 million atmospheres are acted upon hydrogen and helium.
Despite this, we know that hydrogen is expected to be metallic and conductive at depths of a quarter of Jupiter, however, the core itself is around a third the size of Earth. Jupiter's core composition is thought to be icy and rocky, but so far unknown.Above the core is a giant ocean of metallic hydrogen, as mentioned above, which is by far the largest ocean in the entire Solar System. This ocean is very hot and the pressure is high too. Scientists do believe that Jupiter actually does do the first steps of nuclear fusion from hydrogen to helium.
Jupiter, just like all the other Gas Giant planets, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, has rings. However, Jupiter's so called ''Jovian Ring System'', is just like Neptune's ring system, very faint and actually completely invisible to the unaided naked human eye. Thanks to space missions and travels to Jupiter, we could oberve the Jovian Ring System as study it. The ring system is however much laarger than what we think, but it's thin, dark and faint.
Jupiter's rings are probably the most thin and faint rings in the entire Solar System. It's rings seem to be even fainter and darker than Neptune's rings, although, not as faint and daek like the rings of Uranus. Jupiter's rings are primarily made out of dust, but they do have some rocky and icy chunks. It's possible that Jupiter had very wide rings, like Saturn, but lost them, as Jupiter's ring were thrown into the giant planet as a rain of particles under Jupiter's very strong graviry.
Jupiter used to have the most moons, until recently, when 20 new moons were discovered orbiting Saturn, which makes it have 82, 3 higher than Jupiter's 79.Jupiter's moons are some of the largest, having the largest: Ganymede, which is larger than Pluto, our Moon and even Mercury. With Jupiter having so many moons, understandably, many of them will be insignificant and barely seeable. 26 moons are currently waiting their official names.
In 1610, Galileo Galilei discovered the 4 Galilean moons, Ganymede, Io, Callisto and Europa, which, along with our Moon, and Saturn's moon Titan are the largest and most massive moons in the entire Solar System. Europa is the only moon smaller than our Moon, 3100 vs 3474 km in diameter. Ganymede, Europa and Callisto have icy surfaces with liquid oceans underneath, and Io has volcanoes on it's surface that spit sulfuric acid. Of Jupiter's moons, eight are regular satellites with prograde and nearly circular orbits that are not greatly inclined with respect to Jupiter's equatorial plane.
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